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It is said that ‘whoever relies correctly upon the guru can ripen the positive energy generated over the past 3 aeons, and in this one short lifetime can achieve the exalted state of full enlightenment, the omniscient wisdom of Buddhahood’.

Thus, those who practice guru yoga become automatically close to Buddhahood. (Path Of The Bodhisattva Warrior)



One is a Buddhist if he/she accepts the following truths:

  1. All compounded things are impermanent
  2. All emotions are pain
  3. All things have no inherent existence
  4. Nirvana is beyond concepts

These 4 statements spoken by the Buddha himself are known as the ‘4 Seals (or Hallmark that confirms authenticity)’. This is not to be confused with Buddhism’s 4 Noble Truths which pertain solely to aspects of suffering.

The 4 Seals are believed to encompass all of Budddhism, but people don’t seem to want to hear about them. There is nothing moralistic or ritualistic about the 4 Seals. They are secular truths based on wisdom and wisdom is the primary concern of a Buddhist. Morals and ethics are secondary. A few puffs of a cigarette and a little fooling around don’t prevent someone from becoming a Buddhist and that is not to say we have license to be wicked or immoral.

Wisdom comes from a mind that has what the Buddhists called ‘right view’. But one doesn’t even have to consider oneself a Buddhist to have right view. Ultimately it is this view that determines our motivation and action and that which guides us on the path of Buddhism.

If we can adopt wholesome behaviours in addition to the 4 Seals, it makes us even better Buddhist.

But what makes us not a Buddhist?

If you cannot accept that all compounded or fabricated things are impermanent, if you believe that there is some essential substance or concept that is permanent, then you are not a Buddhist

If you cannot accept that all emotions are pain. If you believe that actually some emotions are purely pleasurable, then you are not a Buddhist

If you cannot accept that all phenomena are illusory and empty and if you believe that certain things do exist inherently, then you are not a Buddhist

And if you think enlightenment exists within the spheres of time, space and power, then you are not a Buddhist



BowlsThe purpose of making offerings is to accumulate merit and in particular to develop and increase the mind of generosity and to reduce stinginess and miserliness. By making offerings you also create the causes for the future results of becoming wealthy and becoming naturally and spontaneously generous, most importantly your “spiritual wealth’ will grow within you.

If we can afford, we should offer the best to the Buddhas as if we were offering the best to our honoured guest, e.g. if our Prime Minister were to visit our home, we would naturally serve him the best food and bring out our best serving plates. What more do we need to say for Buddhas, supreme enlightened beings!

All dharma practitioners should wish to be able to offer the best to the Buddhas’ altar, gold is not too practical, so the next best thing is silver. It would be so beautiful and wonderful if we could offer silver butter lamps and silver water offering bowls. The benefits for making such an offering are that one’s material wealth will increase on the external aspect, and internal, our spiritual wealth also increases. Learning the Dharma would be easier when we have less financial or external obstacles. One may not necessary make this contribution to oneself alone but dedicate the merits to one’s kind parents, family, friends, the needy, deceased family members, etc.

Atisha commented that water is one of the best substance to use, for it does not generate attachment in the mind of the practitioner; and although to us it is merely water, the Enlightened Beings regard it as ambrosial nectar.

Attitude of Bodhicitta

MotivationWhenever you do something positive, whether major or minor, it is indispensible to enhance with 3 supreme methods.

Before beginning, arouse bodhicitta as skilful means to ensure that the actions become a source of good for the future.

Whilst carrying out action, avoid getting involved in any conceptualisation (avoid materialistic or ambitious attitude to practice – in fact only true practitioners can practice with true freedom from concepts but as one’s practice matures, freedom from grasping comes progressively) so that merit cannot be destroyed by circumstances (and there are 4 which destroys one’s source of merit:- not dedicating, anger, regretting the beneficial actions done, boasting of one’s positive actions)

At the end, seal action by properly dedicating the merit which ensures it continually grows ever greater (such as a drop of water becomes part of the ocean-it will continue to exist as long as the ocean exists, hence, when the merits of one’s actions is completely dedicated to the “fruit, the Oceon of Omniscience” it will not be lost until one has attained complete Buddhahood.

More importantly than the way to listen to Dharma, is the motivation with which to listen (what makes an action good or bad and not how it looks, nor whether it is big or small, but the good or evil motivation behind it).

Do not be motivated by ordinary concerns, desires for greatness, fame or whatever.  Turn inwards and change your motivation.  If you correct your attitude, skilful means will permeate your positive actions and you will have set out on the path of great beings.


Wholesome and Unwholesome Acts

Whether actions are wholesome or unwholesome depend on the motives (roots) behind them which are:

  1. greed (or attachment)
  2. aversion (or hatred/anger)
  3. delusion (or ignorance)

In terms of wholesome ‘roots’, we can add:

  1. non-greed implies renunciation, detachment and generosity
  2. non-aversion implies loving kindness, sympathy and gentleness
  3. non-delusion implies wisdom

Ripening of karma:

  1. need not be instant
  2. need not be in this life
  3. can be across succession of life times
  4. can be dormant for eons, like a volcanic action, waiting for the right conditions to trigger

Wholesome actions will bear favourable results and unwholesome actions will bear unfavourable results


Right View

There are 2 types of right view:

  1. mundane – which operates within the confines of the world
  2. supramundane – which leads to liberation from the world

Within mundane, we can include the correct grasp of law of karma or law of action (literally means-right view of ownership of action).

Karma – is action – volitional action, having willed, we perform actions through the 3 channels – body, speech and mind and is essentially a mental event (since it is identified with volition)

Actions can be unwholesome and wholesome

Unwholesome actions are:

  • morally blame worthy
  • detrimental to spiritual development

Wholesome actions on the other hand:

  • produce benefits for oneself and others
  • helpful to spiritual growth

Mundane right view provides a basis to do good or bad actions to collect merits/ or not for better/lower rebirth, enjoyment etc…

Supramundane right view entails wanting to liberate from suffering, from rebirth, aging, sickness and death and requires the understanding of the 4 Noble Truth

One has to have the right view to understand:

  1. suffering
  2. origins of suffering
  3. cessation of suffering
  4. the way leading to cessation of suffering

Eight Fold Path – Wisdom

It is about aim and direction, the need for liberation from suffering,

  • by uprooting ignorance
  • by understanding (or awakening)
  • by seeing things (as they really are)

Having a right view is very important –  it is like a guide (or map) as we practice showing:

  • starting point
  • destination and
  • successive phases passed

To practice without a right view, risks getting ‘lost’ (or no direction).  As an analogy, if we want to drive to a place, we must have a road map or advice from experience driver to have a general idea which direction to go.

Right view involves the correct understanding of the entire dharma/teacing of the Buddha

Our Transgressions

Buddhas cannot wash away our negativities with water nor remove our sufferings by touching us with their hands, nor can they transfer their wisdom to us in the manner of giving us a material object.

All they can do is show us the paths and practices.  Whether we achieve spiritual liberation or not depends entirely upon whether we apply ourselves to the practices.

In ‘an ornament of the clear realisations’, it states:

Although the king sends forth rain, infertile seed do not grow or sprout

Similarly, although the Buddhas manifest, those without merit experience no benefit

And ‘a treasury of abhidharma’ states:

The dharma taught by Buddha, has two aspects: scriptural and insight

The first of these is upheld, by means of study and teaching

The second is upheld by practice and realisation